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Posted by: schrodingerscat ( )
Date: April 30, 2021 08:16PM

https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/some-viruses-use-an-alternative-genetic-alphabet-68726

In 1977, scientists showed that a virus called S-2L that infects cyanobacteria has no adenine in its genome. Instead, S-2L uses a nucleotide known as diaminopurine or 2-aminoadenine, shortened to Z, that makes three hydrogen bonds—rather than the two that adenine (A) makes—when paired with thymine (T). In three papers published today (April 29) in Science, researchers show that the use of Z by phages, those viruses that infect bacteria, is more widespread than previously believed, and they describe the pathways by which the alternative nucleotide is made and incorporated into phage genomes.

“It’s been known that there’s this phage that doesn’t have adenine in its genome . . . and it’s been an unsolved mystery about how it does that,” says Jef Boeke, a molecular biologist at New York University Grossman School of Medicine who was not involved in the work. These papers “spell that out in glorious molecular detail,” he tells The Scientist. Plus, the authors “have done an amazingly comprehensive job of showing that this is not one crazy outlier, but there’s a whole group of bacteriophages that have this kind of genetic material....
.... “There are a lot of questions that remain unanswered,” says Kaminski. In a paper that came out earlier this month on which he’s a coauthor, researchers shed light on one of those questions—how the S-2L genome is copied—by identifying the relevant polymerase. But Kaminski explains that one of the most difficult questions to answer will be when this mechanism evolved. “It’s supposed to be ancient because it roots deeply in the phylogenetic tree and because of the similarity of the [enzymatic] structures,” but it’s not clear whether Z or A genomes came first.“

Marine Phages kill 20% of the bacteria in the ocean everyday, even though they are not technically ‘alive’ or there is no consensus they are ‘alive’ but they are the most ubiquitous genetic ‘agent’ on the planet. There are more of them than all the other animal species combined. There are trillions in a tablespoon of seawater.
They are as old as bacteria, if not older.
They not only contain DNA and RNA, they also have their own genetic alphabet that is different from the alphabet used to create all other DNA/RNA, it has a Z instead of an A and scientists don’t know which came first, A or Z.
I know you’re asking, “WTF does ANY of that have to do with Recovery From MORmONism?”
Well, nothing.
Which is why it’s such a beautiful mystery, in a world full of confident dogmatic narratives and certainties. Perhaps our ‘creator’ isn’t an invisible superman in the sky, perhaps our ‘creator’ are the invisible army that is spread all over the Earth and was probably here before anything called ‘life’ evolved from the primordial soup.
And it really is true, the meek shall inherit the earth, because the most ubiquitous biological agent on the planet, will likely survive the man made apocalypse we could cause with the push of a button.

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Posted by: elderolddog ( )
Date: April 30, 2021 08:30PM

Congrats on the two paragraph breaks!!

It's real progress!!

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Posted by: schrodingerscat ( )
Date: May 01, 2021 09:45AM

I count 7.
Wouldn’t want you working for me!

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Posted by: elderolddog ( )
Date: May 01, 2021 10:23AM

Well, one way or the other, your response explains ... something!

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Posted by: Brother Of Jerry ( )
Date: May 01, 2021 11:15AM

You have two paragraph breaks with an extra line of white space. Large blocks of congealed text with no white space are difficult to read. Newspapers figured this out over a century ago and use narrow columns and short paragraphs.

Book publishers still allow long paragraphs, but they usually increase the spacing between all lines, and have relatively wide margins, relatively narrow pages, and/or large font size.

Here the writers can’t control the column width, nor the font size, nor the line spacing. But they can control white space. Very nearly everyone has figured that out and if you open any random thread and instead of reading it just focus on the entire screen, you will notice nearly everyone puts in a line of white space less than every ten lines, though that does depend on the device you are reading on. (Phones. Ack!)

You actually put in paragraph breaks now so you have figured out that short paragraphs are a good idea. You generally omit white space, for god only knows why. Maybe you do it because you think it is stylish, maybe because you know it is vaguely irritating. You seem to have a penchant for “vaguely irritating”.

Saves me time. I jus skip wall-of-text posts. This post was sort of readable, and I found the topic interesting enough that I waded through.


I have always wondered if there was any possible alternatives to ATCG in defining DNA. Why does ATCG appear to be the only mechanism for encoding DNA and RNA? Now we know there is a least a little bit of variation possible.

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Posted by: schrodingerscat ( )
Date: May 01, 2021 12:26PM

Brother Of Jerry Wrote:
-------------------------------------------------------

> Saves me time. I jus skip wall-of-text posts. This
> post was sort of readable, and I found the topic
> interesting enough that I waded through.
>
>
> I have always wondered if there was any possible
> alternatives to ATCG in defining DNA. Why does
> ATCG appear to be the only mechanism for encoding
> DNA and RNA? Now we know there is a least a little
> bit of variation possible.



Thank you for commenting on the content of the post, rather than focusing solely on the form.





I will make sure to place plenty of breaks in between my paragraphs from now on, so you and EOD don't have to strain to criticize the form of my posts any more.

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Posted by: elderolddog ( )
Date: May 01, 2021 01:07PM

> I will make sure to place
> plenty of breaks in between
> my paragraphs from now on,
> so you and EOD don't have
> to strain to criticize the
> form of my posts any more.


Pish posh! It was no strain whatsoever!

If anyone could get his money's worth out of Grammarly, it would be The Cat. I almost envy him in that regard.

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Posted by: Dave the Atheist ( )
Date: May 01, 2021 06:27PM

Baby steps.

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Posted by: ziller ( )
Date: May 01, 2021 01:36PM

OPie's white spaces ~



the creame of OPie's sh!t posts ~



the black not so mush ~

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Posted by: schrodingerscat ( )
Date: May 01, 2021 10:52PM

98% of our DNA was considered 'Junk DNA' but is now considered, or non-coding DNA or genetic dark matter and it has an impact on our mental health.

"Each cell in our bodies holds two metres of DNA that contains the six billion bits of the DNA code necessary for making a healthy human body. This is known as the human genome. It is now accepted that what makes people different, and contributes to their susceptibility to ill health, are the 6-10 million DNA differences in the human genome known to exist within the general population.

A surprising fact is that only 1.7% of these 6 billion bits of code represent the genes that make proteins. Proteins are the physical building blocks of our bodies and are essential to keep us healthy.

Though huge strides have been made in mapping the DNA differences associated with mental health conditions such as depression, schizophrenia and chronic anxiety thanks to the sequencing of the human genome, what surprised many was the discovery that over 98% of these DNA changes lay within the dark and mysterious remainder of the human genome that did not make protein.

This part of the genome had been largely dismissed as the “junk” genome but, because of its importance to health, is now known as “the non-coding genome”. Critically, we don’t yet fully understand what type of information is contained in the non-coding genome that is so essential for human health and how DNA differences change this information result in ill-health."

https://theconversation.com/discovering-how-genetic-dark-matter-plays-a-role-in-mental-illness-is-just-the-tip-of-the-iceberg-for-human-health-142326

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Posted by: Lot's Wife ( )
Date: May 01, 2021 11:19PM

n/t



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 05/01/2021 11:20PM by Lot's Wife.

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Posted by: Elder Berry ( )
Date: May 04, 2021 05:05PM

You two are going through a phage.

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Posted by: Lot's Wife ( )
Date: May 04, 2021 06:00PM

Apparently along with you!

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Posted by: Elder Berry ( )
Date: May 05, 2021 11:00AM

The Three Wise Phages. Where is our savior from infectiousness?

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Posted by: Lot's Wife ( )
Date: May 05, 2021 12:46PM

Elder Berry Wrote:
-------------------------------------------------------
> The Three Wise Phages.

EB, you put the Magi in magic!

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Posted by: Elder Berry ( )
Date: May 06, 2021 11:05AM

I have "The Gift of the Magi." My hair is getting pretty long.

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Posted by: Chicken N. Backpacks ( )
Date: May 03, 2021 12:30PM

I want Tom Lehrer to write a patter song based on the first paragraph of the OP. :-)

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Posted by: tumwater ( )
Date: May 03, 2021 05:15PM

Not being able to fully follow the DNA discussion on the RFM page, I assume that one, or more, DNA genes is a LDS gene that is constantly mutating.

It's dominate in some white races, particularly in western US but due to environmental influences the gene is under greater forces to change.

Maybe the with all the new temples, they are really laboratories where the DNA is studied in order to stabilize and reverse the mutations.

That's my two-bits in this discussion.

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Posted by: schrodingerscat ( )
Date: May 04, 2021 04:43PM

“The Z base has been unambiguously identified in a carbonaceous meteorite and proposed as a nucleobase that could have been available for the origin of life," the team lead by Zhou wrote in their paper.

"Considering that the Z base was discovered in a meteorite, our work may spark interest in interdisciplinary research on the origins of life and astrobiology."

https://www.sciencealert.com/some-bacteriophages-have-a-completely-different-genome-to-the-rest-of-life-on-earth?

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Posted by: ziller ( )
Date: May 04, 2021 07:21PM

OPie loves science ~


ziller profoundly hopes that ~


it loves OPie back ~

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Posted by: Lot's Wife ( )
Date: May 04, 2021 07:31PM

If science doesn't like OPie, OPie will simply invent another.

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