What, if any, DNA evidence exists indicating that Joseph Smith fathered children through his polygamous escapades and not through his marriage to his first wife, Emma?
If you listen to the predictable apologists for Mormonism, none.
Below are some examples of this determined denial.
--From the Former Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ-of Latter-day Saints (i.e., RLDS, but now renamed "Community of Christ"): Joseph Smith Was "Framed" and Didn't Produce Offspring with Anyone Woman Other Than Emma
Richard Price, a writer and self-publisher who acknowledges his personal support for "the original beliefs" of the RLDS Church, claims that Smith sired no children through sex with anyone else but his first wife, Emma. (He also insists that Smith never taught or practices polygamy, but that's a Smith myth for another day).
In his article, "Joseph Smith: Innocent of Polygamy," Price writes:
"It is a very simple matter to determine that Joseph was not a polygamist: He fathered no children by plural wives, even though his wife, Emma, bore him nine.
"It would have been impossible for Joseph to have had at least 27 wives, as the Mormon Church in Utah claims, without having fathered at least one child by a polygamous wife--especially when the only purpose of polygamy (according to its advocates) was to have children born of polygamous parents. And yet Joseph fathered not one such child!
"This fact alone proves that he did not practice that doctrine.
The truth is that Joseph Smith was 'framed'--that is, the doctrine of polygamy which found its way into the Church came in through the Cochranites. It also came through three different groups of men who falsely claimed that Joseph was its author in order to justify their own evil activities. . . .
"The true origin of polygamy becomes clear as the picture emerges of the influence of the Cochranites and other polygamous cults, and the betrayal of the Prophet by the groups of conspirators under Dr. [John] Bennett, Dr. [William] Law, and Brigham Young.
"With this background, it becomes evident that Joseph and Hyrum (neither of whom had polygamous children) were innocent, while the real culprits were Brigham Young and others."
("Joseph Smith: Innocent of Polygamy,by Richard Price, at: http://restorationbookstore.org/articles/doctrine/js-notpoligamist.htm
; for PRrice's admission that he is an apologist for "the original beliefs" of the RLDS Church, see Price's "Online Store," at: http://restorationbookstore.org/mm5/merchant.mvc?Screen=SFNT
--From the Mormon Church: DNA Evidence Proves Joseph Smith Wasn't a Polygamist Father of Children OUtside His First Marriage* (*at least not in certain cases)
In an article in the Mormon Church-owned "Deseret News" headlined, "DNA Solves a Joseph Smith Mystery," reporter Michael De Goote writes:
"Ugo Perego had almost all the DNA evidence he needed to determine who was the father of John Reed Hancock.
"One of the alleged fathers was the most obvious: Levi W. Hancock.
"The other alleged father was Joseph Smith, the founding prophet of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
"Only one piece was missing to solve the mystery.
"Historians and critics have struggled for more than a century to identify children Joseph Smith may have had through polygamous marriages in the 1840s. If definitive answers could be found, it would shed light on how plural marriage was introduced to Mormons by Joseph Smith in Illinois. . . .
"But questions remain today--particularly whether Joseph Smith, who had nine biological children with his wife Emma Smith, had any children through a polygamous wife. Perego, a senior researcher at the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, has looked at this question since 2003 when a descendant of Moroni Pratt called him on the phone.
"The descendant had read in Fawn Brodie's critical biography, 'No Man Knows My History: The Life of Joseph Smith,' that Moroni Pratt wasn't the son of early LDS apostle Parley P. Pratt, but that he was really the son of Joseph Smith. He wanted to know if Perego could use DNA to tell if Moroni Pratt was really Joseph Smith's son.
"The DNA signature of Joseph Smith was easy. Perego had reconstructed it years earlier while trying to trace Joseph Smith's DNA back to England and Ireland. 'This is a very accurate signature. It would not be any different if Joseph Smith were standing next to me to get a DNA sample directly from him,' Perego said.
"He took other DNA samples from Pratt's descendants and made the comparison.
"Moroni Pratt was not Joseph Smith's son; he was Parley P. Pratt's son.
"The Joseph Smith family association referred others to Perego . . . [who] wanted to join the association because they had read references in books like Brodie's that listed their ancestor as a possible child of Joseph Smith. DNA gave the conclusive answers that rumor and speculation couldn't give:
"[Among others,] Mosiah Hancock was not Joseph Smith's son. The DNA research on . . . Mosiah Hancock gave Perego the DNA signature of Levi Hancock. But to test whether Mosiah's brother John Reed Hancock was a son of Joseph Smith, he needed to find one missing piece of the puzzle: a descendant of John Reed Hancock. . . .
" . . . [I]n February , [Perego] spoke at a Family History Expo in Phoenix and in St. George. After the events, he received an email from a woman naming a living descendant of John Reed Hancock--including an address. He checked the name and it matched [a] pedigree chart . . . that named some of John Reed Hancock's living descendants . . . . Before the end of February, Perego had the DNA sample he needed.
"'I am a scientist. I look at the data objectively. I don't care if the results are positive or negative. It doesn't affect my trust in religion or in science,' Perego said. 'If I were to find a child from Joseph Smith from a plural marriage, I would think that was cool because we would learn something more about what was going on.'
"It was a simple matter for Perego to compare the DNA profile of the descendant of John Reed Hancock to Joseph Smith's profile and Levi Hancock's profile. 'It could have been that it didn't match either one of them. There could be an error in the genealogy.'
"He had 46 DNA markers to match up.
"He compared it to Joseph Smith first.
"'It is not a match at all to Joseph Smith,' Perego said. 'There is no biological relationship within the historical timeframe of these two individuals.'
"He compared it to Levi Hancock.
"'It is a perfect match to all the other Hancock males in my database--including his brother Mosiah,' Perego said. 'Case solved.'
"But not every case can be solved. A few alleged children of Joseph Smith died as infants and their burial places are not known. Descendants of daughters are particularly difficult to test conclusively because the easy-to-identify Y chromosome signature only works to identify male descendants.
"But for now, one more piece of the puzzle has been solved. Perego is working on a detailed scientific analysis of the case that he hopes will be published soon in the 'Mormon Historical Studies Journal.'
"'Through DNA we will not be able to test 100% of the cases. But if we test 70% of them and they are all negative, does that provide some insight on the topic that we did not consider before?,' Perego said. 'That is not for me to answer.'"
("DNA Solves a Joseph Smith Mystery," by Michael De Groote, "Deseret News," 9 July 2011, at:http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700150651/DNA-solves-a-Joseph-Smith-mystery.html?pg=all
In an earlier article (also from the "Deseret News"), headlined, "Research Focuses on Smith Family," reporter Carrie A. Moore writes that DNA evidence linking Smith to offspring generated through his polygamous wives remains elusive:
"While LDS Church founder Joseph Smith has been scrutinized intensely by both scholars and scoffers since he launched the faith in 1830, several new avenues of research are focused on his family relationships and whether he fathered children by his polygamist wives.
"A researcher examining DNA evidence of potential Smith descendants by wives other than his first wife, Emma Smith, told participants at the 40th annual 'Mormon History Association' conference . . . he has ruled out three people suspected of being Smith's children.
"Ugo Perego, who is working on an independent project funded by the Salt Lake City-based Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, said he has compiled an initial list of nine such potential Smith descendants but has been able to locate DNA evidence on only four of them--three of them males determined not to be related.
"A fourth, Josephine Rosetta Lyon (daughter of Sylvia Sessions Lyon), is still under investigation after five years of scrutiny, he said. But Y chromosome evidence, used to determine paternal relationships from father to son, is not present for Lyon because she is female. The effort to determine Lyon's parentage has cost more than $100,000 to date.
"'This is not a complete list of possible descendants. I'm still working on that,' he said.
"Known descendants from the children of Joseph and Emma Smith number about 2,000, he said, many of them with little or no interest in religion and some with an aversion to their famous ancestor's polygamist practices.
"Perego said he will be speaking to known descendants of Joseph Smith during a family reunion later this summer and hopes to be able to gather more DNA through a simple cheek swab to expand his database and to help determine Lyon's parentage. He has DNA from her mother's side of the family but is looking for evidence from Smith's side.
"Hair samples from Joseph Smith owned by the LDS Church are poor evidence because there is 'very little (DNA) in hair, and it disintegrates over time.' . . .
"Perego stressed the project is not being undertaken by the Sorenson Foundation itself but through a grant from it. Founded by billionaire medical devices pioneer James Sorenson, the non-profit foundation announced several months ago it was compiling a database of DNA-based evidence that would be accessible to family history researchers looking to verify their family tree."
("Research Focuses on Smith Family," by Carrie A. Moore, "Deseret News," 29 May 2005, at: http://www.deseretnews.com/article/600137517/Research-focuses-on-Smith-family.html
--From Other Sources: No Present DNA Evidence Tying Joseph Smith to Children Except Those He is Said to Have Sired with Emma
In a "Salt Lake Tribune" article headlined, "Comparing Mormon founder, FLDS leader on Polygamy," reporter Peggy Fletcher Stack writes:
"Researchers have suggested eight possible offspring from Joseph Smith's plural wives, [Mormon and author Brian] Hales says but DNA testing on descendants has failed to prove any link. So, he argues, Smith must not have had frequent sex with too many of the women, who were young and likely fertile."
("Comparing Mormon Founder, FLDS leader on Polygamy," by Peggy Fletcher Stack, "Salt Lake Tribune," 28 August 2011, at: http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/news/52371806-78/smith-says-women-wives.html.csp
; also quoted in "Appendix 2: Mormon Polygamy--The Truth Revealed! Joseph Smith, Jr., a True Champion of Female Equality," p. 675, fn 49, at: http://marvelousworkandawonder.com/js/download/MormonPolygamyMWAW.pdf
While it is convincingly clear that Smith had sex with at least some of his multiple wives, one research site specializing in Mormonism observes that DNA evidence pointing convincingly to children having been produced through his extra-Emma sexual relations is still lacking.
Under the sub-headline "Did Joseph Smith Have Sex with His Wives?," the website "Mormonthink" reports:
" . . . In total, 13 faithful Latter-day Saint women who were married to Joseph Smith swore court affidavits that they had sexual relations with him. There is more evidence to suggest that Joseph Smith had sex with his wives than there is that he saw God and Jesus in 1820. . . ."
On "DNA testing," the site notes:
"There is an effort to determine if Joseph has fathered any children from women other than his first wife Emma. No evidence has yet come forth that he did (or did not) father any children from his polygamous marriages."
("Polygamy," under "Did Joseph Smith Have Sex with His Wives?," at: http://www.mormonthink.com/joseph-smith-polygamy.htm
Hold your horny hormones, there, Joe.
--First, Non-DNA Evidence Indicating that Smith Polygamously Produced Children
Faithful Mormon scholar and historian Don Bradley (who initially resigned his LDS Church membership because of his studies on the life of Joseph Smith but who later rejoined its ranks and was fully reinstated) writes:
"There is at minimum one child who came from Joseph Smith's polygamy: Josephine Lyon Fisher. (This stills awaits DNA confirmation, but the published historical evidence for it is good, and I know of a great deal that is unpublished.) And I believe, with reason, that there were a couple others. Perhaps in time this will all get sorted out satisfactorily."
(Don Bradley 27 July 2010, under "Dating Fanny Alger," on "Mormon Dialogue and Discussion Board," at: http://www.mormondialogue.org/topic/50479-dating-fanny-alger/page__st__20
; also quoted in "Joseph Smith and Polygamy," under "Other Excerpts," on "Mormonism Research Ministry," at: http://www.mrm.org/joseph-smith-and-polygamy
; for a biography of Bradley, see "The Rest is History: How a Mormon Scholar Turned Doubter, Then Believer--Spiritual Journey for LDS historian Don Bradley, The Search for Truth about Joseph Smith Led to Disaffection and, Finally, Devotion to the Faith’s Founder," by Peggy Fletcher Stack, "Salt Lake Tribune," 31 August 2012, at: http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/lifestyle/54790798-80/bradley-mormon-faith-smith.html.csp
Additional non-DNA evidence indicating Smith sired children in sexualized-polygamous relationships outside his marriage to Emma includes this analysis authored by Hales, entitled, "Joseph Smith's Polygamy":
"Despite the large number of alleged children of Joseph Smith listed in the chart below, only two seem verifiable: Josephine Lyon and a child to Olive Gray Frost.
"1. "Name: Josephine Lyon
"Mother: Sylvia Lyon
"Birth Date: February 8, 1844
"Evidence: Mother's declaration
"Discussion: High probability
"2. Name: 'child'
"Mother: Olive Gray Frost
"Birth Date: Unknown--sealing occurred in summer of 1843
"Evidence: Joseph E. Robinson autobiography, recounting October 26, 1902 (Ms 7866) [see also, James Whitehead, interview conducted by Joseph Smith III, 20 April 1885. original in possession of John Hajicek; D. Michael Quinn, 'The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power' (Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books, 1994), p. 586]
"Discussion: Robinson wrote: 'During the afternoon I called on Aunt Lizzie . . . . [S]he knew Joseph Smith had more than two wives. Said he married… Olive Frost [and] had a child by him and that both died.'
("Joseph Smith's Polygamy," by Bruce Hales, at: http://www.josephsmithspolygamy.com/images/ChartJSPossibleChildren.html
; see also Hale's website home page, at: http://www.josephsmithspolygamy.com/index.html
Further evidence (also non-DNA in nature) strongly indicating that Smith produced children through his polygamous marriages is found in an article written by former "Recovery from Mormonism" poster "Deconstructor," subtitled, "Did Joseph Smith Father Any Children from His Polygamous Wives?":
"-Stake President Angus Cannon . . . testified:
"'I will now refer you to one case where it was said by the girl's grandmother that your father [Joseph Smith] has a daughter born of a plural wife. The girl's grandmother was Mother Sessions .. . . She was the granddaughter of Mother Sessions. That girl, I believe, is living today, in Bountiful, north of this city. I heard Pres. Young, a short time before his death, refer to the report . . . . The woman is now said to have a family of children, and I think she is still living."
(Stake President Angus M. Cannon, statement of interview with Joseph III, pp. 25-26, LDS archives)
"-Faithful Mormon and wife of Joseph Smith, Sylvia Sessions (Lyon), on her deathbed told her daughter, Josephine, that she (Josephine) was the daughter of Joseph Smith. Josephine testified:
"'She (Sylvia) then told me that I was the daughter of the Prophet Joseph Smith, she having been sealed to the Prophet at the time that her husband Mr. Lyon was out of fellowship with the Church.'
(affidavit to Church Historian Andrew Jenson, 24 February 1915)
'-In her testimony given at a Brigham Young University devotional, faithful Mormon Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner stated that she knew of children born to Smith's plural wives:
"'I know he [Joseph Smith] had six wives and I have known some of them from childhood up. I know he had three children. They told me. I think two are living today but they are not known as his children as they go by other names.' . . .
"-Researchers have tentatively identified eight children that Joseph Smith may have had by his plural wives. Besides Josephine Fisher (born 8 February 1844), . . . named as possible children of Joseph Smith by his plural wives are . . . George A. Lightner (born 12 March 1842) [died as an infant]; Orson W. Hyde (born . 9 November 1843) [died as an infant]; [and] Frank H. Hyde (born 23 January 1845) [birthdate unknown] . . . ."
("Mormon Polygamy: A History" by LDS historian Richard S. Van Wagoner, pp. 44, 48, 49 fn3)
[Note: Some children listed above have been removed from Joseph Smith's alleged paternity line due to DNA research that, according to Ugo Perego, has identified these offspring as having not been sired by Smith].
("Did Joseph Smith Have Sex with His Wives?," under "Did Joseph Smith Father Any |Children from His Polygamous Wives?," by "Deconstructor," at: http://www.i4m.com/think/history/joseph_smith_sex.htm
--Now, DNA EVidence for Joseph Smith's Possible Polygamous Production of Offspring Outside His Marriage to Emma
Ironically, Ugo Perego (the same researcher whom the Mormon Church's "Deseret News" reported had not demonstrated that Smith had produced babies via his polygamous wives), explains that Smith still might eventually be shown (through DNA) to have daddy-ed children with women other than Emma.
In an article entitled, "The CHildren of Joseph Smith and DNA Research," Perego writes:
"Because Joseph Smith practiced polygamy in relative secrecy, the details of children he may have fathered by his plural wives is uncertain.
"In a 1905 speech at Brigham Young University, Joseph's wife, Mary Elizabeth Rollins explained, 'I know he [Joseph] had six wives and I have known some of them from childhood up. I know he had three children. They told me. I think two are living today but they are not known as his children as they go by other names.'
('Remarks", April 14, 1905, BYU Lee Library).
"Josephine Lyon, daughter of Sylvia Sessions Lyon, wrote:
"'Just prior to my mother's death in 1882, she called me to her bedside and told me that her days were numbered and before she passed away from mortality she desired to tell me something which she had kept as an entire secret from me and from all others but which she now desired to communicate to me. She then told me that I was the daughter of the Prophet Joseph Smith.'
"As with Josephine, these children were most likely borne by women who already had a husband when they married Joseph Smith, and may have been raised using the first husband’s surname.
"Still, questions remain regarding who these children may have been.
"Today, DNA science may be providing answers.
"One method of doing this is by tracing a portion of the Y Chromosome, which remains essentially unchanged as it passes from father to son. By analyzing the DNA of a male descendant, the paternity of the ancestor can be determined.
Although Y chromosome testing is extremely useful in cases involving unbroken paternal lineages, it cannot be used to identify alleged daughters--such as Josephine Lyon--that Joseph Smith may have fathered. To understand these cases, complex genetic testing involving autosomal DNA (the DNA found in the remaining chromosomes) is required.
"Historians have previously identified eight possible children of Joseph Smith borne by his plural wives. As of November 2007, DNA testing has shown that three of these eight children were not fathered by Joseph Smith. Two other children died as infants and therefore left no posterity. DNA testing is underway or remains a possiblity for the the remaining three."
(Note: Two out of those three children listed by Perego subsequently appear not to have been confirmed as children of Smith, theregy leaving them (at least possibly as late as 2011) listed by Perego with their "traditionally-recognized mother and father").
--The first possibly DNA-related child of Smith is:
"Josephine Lyon (Birth: February 8, 1844)
Mother: Sylvia Sessions Lyon
Father: Windsor Lyon
(Note: With regard to Josephine, Perego writes that "[o]ngoing research includes evaluation of Josephine Lyon . . . autosomal DNA: 'Hundreds of DNA samples from male and female descendants of both Josephine Lyon and Joseph Smith have been collected and are being analyzed with the objective of identifying lineage-specific markers . . .' [Perego, Woodward, 'Journal of Mormon History,' Vol 32, No.2 fn 39]. In January 2004, descendants of Josephine participating in this study indicated the research is 'promising' in confirming Josephine as a daughter of Joseph Smith. An August 2008 'Mormon Times' article indicates, '. . . [T]hey should know in the "next year or so.'"
The second possibly DNA-related child of Smith is:
"--Frank Henry Hyde (Birth: January 23, 1845, 1846?)
Mother: Marinda Johnson Hyde
Father: Orson Hyde
(Note: Perego reports that "[t]he year of Frank Henry Hyde's birth is uncertain. An 1846 birthdate would eliminate him as a possible child of Joseph Smith [see 'The Orson Hyde Genealogy,' 'Utah Genealogical Magazine and Historical,' April 1913, p. 60 and 'ISL,' p. 535, fn 41"]).
Perego proceeds to explain the methods utilized to determine Smith's possible paternity of children not born to him and Emma:
At the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, Dr. Scott R. Woodward and Ugo A. Perego are using DNA techniques to better understand the paternity issues related to possible children of Joseph Smith. This genetic testing was part of several special projects designed to help the general public recognize the value of DNA in family history research. [See]
'Reconstructing The Y-Chromosome of Joseph Smith'--a paper detailing their research was presented at the Mormon History Association Conference May 28, 2005 and was also published in the Summer 2005 'Journal of Mormon History' (Vol. 32, No 2). . . .
"The researchers are also hoping to study the other possible children of Joseph Smith and welcome the involvement of descendants.
These special projects were conducted as independent studies by both researchers and are not part of the Foundation's main goals and objectives."
("The Children of Joseph Smith and DNA Research," by Ugo Perego, last Updated: November 2008, at: http://www.wivesofjosephsmith.org/DNA.htm
---Criticism of Perego's Alleged Selectivity in Employing DNA Evidence in His Mormon-Related Research
Perego responds to criticism that his Smith-paternity DNA research has been faulty.
In a response titled, "There is DNA and DNA," he writes:
" . . . I [have come] across [an online forum] post . . . where the writer disputed the accuracy of some of my research findings and conclusions, based on his impression that I would purposely accept DNA evidence only when it was convenient and dismiss it when it wasn't.
"The two issues in question are the work I have done in identifying possible biological children of Mormonism's first prophet, Joseph Smith, Jr. versus my apparent dismissal of DNA evidence (or lack thereof) when it comes to substantiat[ing] the historicity of the Book of Mormon.
"Here is the post:
"'Interesting that [Ugo Perego] uses DNA evidence to conclude that these children were not fathered by Joseph Smith but when the same DNA evidence says that Native Americans did not descend from anyone of Middle Eastern origins, he goes through all sorts of mental gymnastics to suggest that the evidence is inconclusive. He fancies himself a scientist yet tries to manipulate the results of his research in order to reach the desired conclusion. Science, indeed.'
"It is quite obvious that whoever wrote this statement either has not read the actual publications I wrote or he might simply not understand them.
"A couple of years ago, at the conclusion of my presentation at the annual FAIR conference, a similar question was posed, this time by someone that could not understand why I felt so strongly about my conclusions regarding Joseph Smith['s] alleged offspring and, yet, I rejected the so-called genetic evidence of a Great Lakes geographical setting for the people described in the Book of Mormon. I am sure that others that are not familiar with the details and properties of genetic inheritance might be wondering the same thing.
"The answer to these questions/criticisms is quite simple and I have addressed [then] multiple times, including in some of my writings. DNA is not evidence only when it is convenient but it is evidence when it is evidence.
"In the case of testing Joseph Smith['s] purported children born to polygamous relationships, the genetic method employed was the uni-parental marker Y chromosome, which is a section of DNA that is inherited exclusively from father to son, along an unbroken paternal line.
"Because of lack of recombination, Y chromosome testing can be ascertained to exact people in a person's pedigree chart. If the genealogy is known and the Y chromosome signature (called haplotype) of a number of male descendants of a specific ancestor can be collected and tested, then the Y chromosome profile of that ancestor can be inferred quite accurately, just as if a DNA sample could have been obtained from the ancestor himself.
"This process can be repeated over and over for any male ancestor (including Joseph Smith and his alleged biological sons), as long as living male descendants can be identified and a DNA sample collected from them. Then the game is quite easy. All you have to do is to line up and compare the inferred (or reconstructed) Y chromosome haplotypes for the two individuals you are trying to establish a connection along the paternal line. If the values match, then you probably have a biological relationship. If they don't, then you can be 100% confident that you are looking at two non-related individuals.
"So, how could science be accurate in this instance, but it cannot be used to bring forth similar conclusions when it comes to the historicity of the Book of Mormon?
"The difference lays within the expectations from the genetic approach. In the case of Joseph Smith and his alleged posterity, the Y chromosome profiles that were reconstructed and used for that analysis were accurate genetic fingerprints that belonged to specific individuals that lived in the past. The known relationships obtained through the genealogical data were key to line up the proper candidates for the genetic testing necessary in the study.
"With regard to the Book of Mormon, I explained already and in great detail that you cannot exclude the historical presence of an Israelite family arriving in the Americas 2600 years ago, based on the genetic sampling of modern-day Native American populations.
"This is simple and plain population genetics at work. Any population geneticist would agree that when a small group of people become part of a large population, their genetic signature is destined to disappear quite rapidly within a handful of generations.
"Moreover, we now know with great accuracy the Y chromosome haplotype of Joseph Smith and how it can be used as a standard for comparison against anyone who was claimed to be his biological child; however, we know nothing about the DNA profiles of the people of the Book of Mormon.
"The 'mental gymnastic[s]' I have been accused of is the very piece of truth that those criticizing the historicity of the Book of Mormon from a DNA standpoint are unwilling to accept: WE DON'T KNOW WHAT LEHI'S DNA IS and therefore this is the main reason why it cannot be identified in the Americas. Everything else is pretty much irrelevant. Show me Lehi's DNA and then let's go about looking for it among past and present indigenous populations of the Western Hemisphere. Without it, you are missing the very piece of genetic evidence that anyone interested in a genetic perspective on the Book of Mormon (both in favor or against it) would need."
("There is DNA and DNA," by Ugo Perego, 13 January 2011, original emphasis, at:http://www.josephsmithdna.com/1/post/2011/01/there-is-dna-and-dna.html
Perego may ('til the cureloms come home) try to persuade his FAIR audiences that Native Americans are really Jewish but there is intriguing evidence (both DNA and non-DNA in nature) that Joseph Smith may well have fathered children in polygamous marriages that did not require the participation of his first wife, Emma.
Puzzling enough, for all the Mormon-fueled hype surrounding other DNA studies supposedly on the verge of further proving that Smith was not the father of polygmaous procreation, Perego is way behind schedule in showcasing that purported fact.
Why is that? A possible answer:
We now learn that he has ceased his research on Smith's DNA linkage to polygamously-bred offspring and has since left the United States for his native Italy--where he has taken a paid job as a seminary teacher in the LDS Church Education System.
Who woulda thunk.
As RfM poster "sistersalamander" recently noted:
"The whole DNA testing thing is problematic.
"If the men involved are LDS or have LDS families, there would be pressure to claim the results were negative, whether or not they actually were. Even if the men themselves acknowledged positive test results, TSCC would have a vested interest in lying about them and pressuring the men to remain silent.
"There's also the possibility that Woodward and Perego manipulated the test results. Perego received funding from the Sorenson Foundation, plus his church reputation was at stake. That makes his answers rather predictable.
"Back in 2008, extensive research to determine the ancestry of Josephine Lyons looked 'promising'--they expected to obtain results in a year or so. The project fell into the proverbial black hole; no results were ever announced. Perego stopped work on it, obtained his PhD in 2010, and moved back to his native Italy to pursue an academic career:http://www.josephsmithdna.com/1/post/2012/03/ugo-perego-has-been-exiled.html
"Why the silence? TSCC has been more than willing to publicize negative testing results (whether or not they are legitimate).
"TBMs realize the importance of being able to claim an absence of proven JS/plural wife descendants; if kids existed, then it's proof JS had sex with at least some of his plural wives. That would destroy a lot of apologist defenses and make TSCC look bad (especially since they're now scuttling away from any ownership of polygamy).
"Apparently, some things that are true are not very useful."
(repost from "sistersalamander," on "RfM' discussion board, "Re: Just curious ... is there any documentary evidence and DNA evidence that Joseph Smith had children with his polygamous wives??," 20 February 2013, at: http://exmormon.org/phorum/read.php?2,800927,801057#msg-801057
In the meantime, how do we account for the lack of copious DNA evidence linking Smith to children fathered through his polygamous marriages?
Perhaps because Smith had it aborted.
--Covering the Damning DNA through the Nauvoo Abortion Business?
The trail back to Smith's polygamously-fathered children is perhaps more difficult to track because of the practice of abortion among the Nauvoo Mormons, as demonstrated by the following historical evidence:
"Evidence of abortions?
"Some critics believe that Joseph may have gotten some of his wives pregnant but had them get abortions. This is what Sarah Pratt, whom Joseph excommunicated for refusing to have sex with him, said to Smith's son.
"'I saw that he was not inclined to believe the truth about his father, so I said to him: 'You pretend to have revelations from the Lord. Why don't you ask the Lord to tell you what kind of a man your father really was?' He answered: 'If my father had so many connections with women, where is the progeny?' I said to him: 'Your father had mostly intercourse with married women, and as to single ones, Dr. Bennett was always on hand, when anything happened.'
"'Dr.' Bennett was an abortionist.
("Polygamy," under "Evidence of Abortions?," at: http://www.mormonthink.com/joseph-smith-polygamy.htm
Then, there was the fact that Smith visited houses of prostitution in Nauvoo--the same city where Mormons were receiving abortion services, as well.
Former RfM posters Bob McCue and "Deconstructor" write:
"[The] Wife of Apostle Orson Pratt isn't the only one who knew about abortions in Nauvoo..
"LDS Elder Ebenezer Robinson testified that Hyrum Smith:
'instructed me in November or December 1843 to make a selection of some young woman and he would seal her to me, and I should take her home,' he recalled, 'and if she should have an offspring give out word that she had a husband, an Elder, who had gone on a foreign mission.'
"Possibly referring to a secluded birthplace, or conceivably to abortion, Robinson spoke of 'a place appointed in Iowa, 12 or 18 miles from Nauvoo to send female victims to his polygamous births."
(Ebenezer Robinson to Jason W. Briggs, 28 January 1880, LDS archives)
"On December 29, 1873, Ebenezer and Angeline Robinson signed an affidavit saying that Hyrum Smith had come to their house in the fall of 1843 to teach them the doctrine of polygamy.
"Apostle Orson Pratt's wife testified:
"'One day they came both, Joseph and [Doctor] Bennett, on horseback to my house. Bennett dismounted, Joseph remained outside. Bennett wanted me to return to him a book I had borrowed from him. It was a so-called doctor-book. I had a rapidly growing little family and wanted to inform myself about certain matters in regard to babies, etc.-- this explains my borrowing that book."
"'While giving Bennett his book, I observed that he held something in the left sleeve of his coat. Bennett smiled and said: "Oh, a little job for Joseph; one of his women is in trouble." Saying this. he took the thing out of his left sleeve. It was a pretty long instrument of a kind I had never seen before. It seemed to be of steel and was crooked at one end.'
"'I heard afterwards that the operation had been performed; that the woman was very sick, and that Joseph was very much afraid that she might die, but she recovered."
(testimony of Apostle Orson Pratt's wife, Sarah Pratt from 'Joseph Smith the Prophet: His Family and Friends:
A Study Based on Facts and Documents," illustrated [Salt Lake City, Utah: Tribuen Printing and Publishing Company, 1886], p. 61062, at: http://olivercowdery.com/smithhome/1886WWyl.htm#pg060a
"Joseph Smith's once-close associate Doctor Bennett was also accused by Hyrum Smith of practicing abortions.
"Hyrum testified that Dr. Bennett was propositioning women in a similar fashion to Joseph Smith:
"'[Dr. Bennett] endeavored to seduce them, and accomplished his designs by saying it was right; that it was one of the mysteries of God, which was to be revealed when the people was strong enough in faith to bear such mysteries?that it was perfectly right to have illicit intercourse with females, providing no one knew it but themselves, vehemently trying them from day to day, to yield to his passions, bringing witnesses of his own clan to testify that there were such revelations and such commandments, and that they were of God; also stating that he would be responsible for their sins, if there were any, and that he would give them medicine to produce abortions, provided they should become pregnant."
(affidavit of Hyrum Smith. "Official History of the Church," Vol. 5, p. 71)
"Here is a book review I posted at Amazon of 'The Saintly Scoundrel - The Life and Times of Dr. John Cook Bennett,' by Andrew F. Smith: http://www.salamandersociety.com/museum/bennett/
"The juicy parts are more towards the end of the review. Smith and Bennett were birds (or is that blokes) of a feather: 'The Saintly Scoundrel: The Life and Times of Dr. John Cook Bennett,' by Andrew F. Smith. Reviewed by the Salamander Society at Amazon.com. (click on the book cover) Following are some quotes from the book but for a much deeper feel and context for Dr. John C. Bennett's influence in early Mormonism, please read the entire book."
Some excerpts from the book, as provided by "Deconstructor":
"'Summer 0f 1840--Bennett wrote a series of three letters to Joseph Smith. He professed that wealth was not his aim but desired only happiness. He was convinced that he could enjoy himself better with the Mormons than with any other religious body. He hoped that the time would "soon come when your people will become my people, your God my God."
"'Jospeh Smith wrote back from Nauvoo on August 8, 1840: "It would afford me much pleasure to see you at this place, and from the desire you express in your letter to move to this place, I hope I shall soon have the satisfaction."'
"'While there were many spontaneous conversions to Mormonism, religious fervor was not likely to have been central to Bennett's move to Nauvoo. His correspondence was a calculated attempt to gain Smith's and Rigdon's confidence. Unlike other confidence men, Bennett was quite ambitious and desired glory and renown; he was quite willing to sacrifice money both for fame and power. Bennett might have believed from the onset that Smith was a charlatan and that Mormonism was a fraud, but this would not have particularly mattered to him. He pursued secular, not religious goals. He was interested in using the Mormons, as he had the Methodists and the Christian Disciples, to promote his eminence and enhance his power.'
"'Joseph Smith was impressed with Bennett and had him board with the Smith family for 39 weeks. He became Joseph Smith's closest friend and confident, claiming to have known "Joseph better than any other man living for a least 14 months!" William Law, who later became assistant president of the Mormon church, agreed with Bennett's assessment of his relationship with Joseph Smith. According to Law, Bennett "was more in the secret confidence of Joseph than perhaps any other man in the city."'
"'Bennett also befriended Joseph Smith's brothers, Hyrum Smith and Don Carlos Smith. Hyrum Smith replaced Joseph Smith, Sr., as the patrirarch of the Mormon Church. When Bennett was baptized, he received the first patriarchal blessing bestowed by Hyrum Smith. Impressed with Bennett's speaking abilities, Hyrum Smith likened Bennett to the Biblical "Paul reasoning with Felix, and they shall tremble when they hear thy words." Hyrum Smith predicted that Bennett would not turn "aside from the truth for the popularity of the world.'
"' . . . Smith later charged Bennett with almost continuous adultery from the time he arrived in Nauvoo [iN 1840] . . . .'.
"'While in Nauvoo, Bennett had succeeded beyond his own wildest expectations. He later nostalgically observed that he had "possessed power, wealth and the means to gratify every passion or desire."'
"'According to Joseph Smith, as soon as Bennett became a Mormon (Bennett's date of baptism is disputed but was either in September or October of 1840), Smith received a letter from an unidentified person cautioning the Mormons against him. Knowing that it was not uncommon "for good men to be evil spoken against," however, Smith kept quiet about the letter.
"'In February of 1841, Smith sent George Miller to McConnelsville to delve into Bennett's past. On March 2,1841, Miller reported back that "during many years his poor, but confiding wife, followed him from place to place, with no suspicion of his unfaithfulness to her; at length however, he became so bold enough in his departures, that it was evident to all around that he was a sore offender and his wife left him under satisfactory evidence of his adulterous connections; nor was this his only fault; he used her bad otherwise." Miller concluded that Bennett was "an impostor, and unworthy of the confidence of all good men."
"'Despite this information, neither Smith nor Miller took any known action against Bennett. In fact, Smith appointed him assistant president of the Mormon Church in April 1841. Miller himself permitted Bennett to become the secretary of the Nauvoo Masonic Lodge in December 1841.
"'On June 15, 1841, Hyrum Smith and William Law, then in Pittsburgh, wrote to Joseph Smith corroborating the content of George Miller's letter. According to Smith, he read the letter to Bennett, "which he did not attempt to deny, but candidly acknowledged the fact." Whatever happened, Bennett and Joseph Smith clearly had a temporary parting of the ways. Bennett, who had been living with Joseph Smith's family, moved into other quarters.'
"'Oliver Olney reported in his journal that in early April 1842 it was common gossip that members of the Twelve Apostles were "very intimate with females."
"'On April 10, 1842 Joseph Smith "pronounced a curse upon all adulterers and fornicators and unvirtuous persons" and those who had made use of his "name to carry on their iniquitious designs." The individuals to whom these remarks referred were unnamed.'
"'On May 14, 1842 the City Council passed an ordinance prohibiting brothels in the city. An eyewitness later claimed that Bennett had built one. The City Council ordered it ripped down as a public nuisance. Lorenzo D. Wasson, Smith's nephew, reported that he had knowledge of "Bennett and his prostitutes." Whatever Bennett's connnection to the brothel, if any, it is unimaginable that it could have survived without the knowledge of the leaders of the Church, yet due to a tacit acceptance, perhaps because the brothel was protected by Bennett, or it might have been an integral part of an emerging system of sexual experimentation then underway in Nauvoo, as Bennett later implied.
"'On May 17, 1842 Bennett resigned as mayor and voluntarily left the Mormon Church. Two days later Joseph Smith was elected mayor and Hyrum Smith was elected as vice-mayor.'
"'On the morning of May 26, 1842, Bennett met with 60 to 100 of the Masonic brethren. According to Smith, Bennett "acknowledged his wicked and licentious conduct toward certain females in Nauvoo, and that he was worthy of the severest chastisement, and cried like a child, and begged that he might be spared, in any possible way; so deep was his apparent sense of his quilt and unfitness for respectable society; so deeply did he feign, or really feel contrition for the moment, that he was forgiven still."
"'Joseph Smith pled for mercy for Bennett. This seems curious, though perhaps this is consistent with Joseph Smith's pattern of forgiving sinners after public confession. Alternately, as others have speculated, Smith and Bennett might have come to agreement: If Bennett publicly confessed his sins, Smith would forgive him. Still others have suggested that Smith's reluctance to break with Bennett might have been based on his fear that Bennett would publicly reveal his knowledge about plural marriage and Joseph Smith.'
"Perhaps Smith expected or at least hoped that Bennett would leave Nauvoo quietly. When he failed to do so, Smith publicly censured him. On June 18,1842, Smith spoke out publicly against Bennett. According to Wilford Woodruff, Smith "spoke his mind in great plainness concerning the iniquity and wickedness of Gen. John Cook Bennett, and exposed him before the the public."
"'Smith's public attack produced a heated exchange with Bennett. As described in a private letter published in Burlington's "Hawk-Eye and Iowa Patriot," "Some hard swearing passed between these saints during the quarrel." According to the unidentified author, Bennett threatened "to write a book for the purpose of exposing the rascality of this pretender to the spirit of prophecy. Bennett was excommunicated from the Mormon Church on this day. On June 21, 1842, Bennett abruptly left Nauvoo and headed for Springfield.'
"'Bennett returned to Nauvoo before June 26, 1842, and boarded with George Robinson. On June 27 he wrote to James G. Edwards, editor of the "Hawk-Eye and Iowa Patriot," reporting that the schism between Smith and him was irreconcilable. He also recounted that Smith had threatened to kill him and had "ordered some of his Danite band to effect the murder clandestinely." According to Bennett, on the evening of June 29, "12 of the Danites, dressed in female apparel, approached my boarding house, (Gen. Robinson's) in Nauvoo, with their carriage wheels wrapped with blankets and their horses feet covered with cloths, to prevent noise, about 10 o'clock, for the purpose of conveying me off and assassinating me, thus prevent disclosures--but I was so admirably prepared with arms, as were also my friends, that after prowling around the house for some time, they retired.'
"'July 1842--Bennett's Accusations Against Joseph Smith
"'1. That Bennett's disfellowshipment notice of May 11, 1842, signed by John E Page, William Smith and Lyman Wright was a forgery because these three men were not in Nauvoo at that time. All three were away on official Church errands.
"'2. That Joseph Smith attempted to seduce Miss Nancy Rigdon, the eldest and single daughter of Sidney Rigdon.
"'3. That Joseph Smith sold valuable property to Willard Richards, N.K. Whitney and others prior to declaring bankruptcy.
"'4. That Joseph Smith, Brigham Young and four others were initiated, passed and raised before the installation of the Masonic Lodge, which was against Masonic regulations.
"'5. That Joseph Smith introduced a new degree of Masonry, called "Order Lodge," in which a part of the obligation says, "I furthermore promise and swear, that I will never touch a daughter of Adam unless she is given me of the Lord," so as to accord with Smith's licentious practices.
"'6. That Bennett's affidavit, sworn on May 17, and his statement, signed on May 19 before the city council, were made under duress.
"'7. That Joseph Smith ordered Orrin Porter Rockwell to shoot former Governor of Missouri, Lilburn W. Boggs.'
"'September 1842--Bennett publishes his 350-page book "History of the Saints, " an anti-Mormon work. The Mormons, of course, were not overwhelmed by the book. Joseph Smith prophesied "that whoever has any hand in the matter, will find themselves in a poor fix in relation to the money matters." While the book's financial earnings have not been uncovered, it is not likely Smith's prediction was accurate. The book went through three printings in 1842. For two years Bennett had no known revenue other than the royalties from the book and his lecture fees.'
"'In 1850, Brigham Young announced that John C. Bennett had died in one of the most wretched slums of California, where he had gone in the excitement of the Great Gold Rush. According to Young, Bennett's body had been "dragged out with his boots on, put into a cart, hauled off and dumped into a hole a rotten mass of corruption." Aroet Hale claimed that Bennett's death, as described by Young, was the fulfillment of one of Joseph Smith's prophecies. According to Hale, Bennett was cursed to "die a vagabond upon the face of the earth, without friends to berry him."'
"'The report of Bennett's demise was greatly exaggerated, however. He was alive and well, living in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Bennett continued to practice medicine, breed chickens and cattle, promote anti-slavery issues, served as a surgeon in the Union army and re-married. After a protracted illness, probably precipitated by a stroke, Bennett died at the age of 64 in August of 1867 in Polk City, Iowa.'
"'Despite the Mormon appraisals, Bennett was respected by his Polk City neighbors and was relatively well-off when he died. His tombstone is one of the largest in the Polk City Cemetary. His second wife died less than one year later and was buried beside him. Bennett's first wife, Mary, lived until 1897. Nothing is known of his two children.'
"'As shocking as Bennett's disclosures might have been in his day, the Mormon experiment with polygamy should be viewed in the broader context of sexual exploration underway in the United States at the time. On one end of the spectrum of sexual experimentation were the Shakers, who believed in complete abstinance. On the other end were those members of the Oneida Community in New York, who openly practiced their belief in free love.
"'80 years before Bennett made his first disclosures, the United States had been rocked by the sensation surrounding the self-styled prophet, "Matthias." This scandal included reports of lascivious sexual relations, a strange new religious cult and eventually murder. Matthias was tried and convicted of lesser charges. Four months after he left jail in 1835, Matthias visited Kirtland, where he met and conversed with Joseph Smith and preached to the Mormons. Smith subsequently cast Matthias out of Kirtland.'
("Joseph Smith Visited Houses Of Prostitution," by Bob McCue and "Deconstructor," on "Recovery from Mormonism" discussion board, June 2006)
"Deconstructor" posts further information about Smith's habit of cavorting with prostitutes:
"On another thread, someone mentioned that in Jon Krakauer's 'Under The Banner Of Heaven' it mentions that Joseph Smith visited houses of prostitution.
"From the book:
"'According to Sarah Pratt, the wife of Mormon "apostle" Orson Pratt: "the prophet Joseph used to frequent houses of ill-fame. Mrs. White, a very pretty and attractive woman, once confessed to me that she made a business of it to be hospitable to the captains of the Mississippi steamboats. She told me that Joseph had made her acquaintance very soon after his arrival in Nauvoo, and that he had visited her dozens of times."
"A look at the full testimony of Sister Pratt reveals even more details on the character of Joseph Smith:
"'I have told you that the prophet Joseph used to frequent houses of ill-fame. Mrs. White, a very pretty and attractive woman, once confessed to me that she made a business of it to be hospitable to the captains of the Mississippi steamboats. She told me that Joseph had made her acquaintance very soon after his arrival in Nauvoo, and that he had visited her dozens of times."
"'My husband (Apostle Orson Pratt) could not be induced to believe such things of his prophet. Seeing his obstinate incredulity, Mrs. White proposed to Mr. Pratt and myself to put us in a position where we could observe what was going on between herself and Joseph the prophet. We, however, declined this proposition."
"'Next door to my house was a house of bad reputation. One single woman lived there, not very attractive. She used to be visited by people from Carthage whenever they came to Nauvoo. Joseph used to come on horseback, ride up to the house and tie his horse to a tree, many of which stood before the house. Then he would enter the house of the woman from the back. I have seen him do this repeatedly."
"'Joseph Smith, the son of the prophet, and president of the re-organized Mormon church, paid me a visit, and I had a long talk with him. I saw that he was not inclined to believe the truth about his father, so I said to him: 'You pretend to have revelations from the Lord. Why don't you ask the Lord to tell you what kind of a man your father really was?' He answered: 'If my father had so many connections with women, where is the progeny?' I said to him: 'Your father had mostly intercourse with married women, and as to single ones, Dr. Bennett was always on hand, when anything happened."'
("Joseph Smith And Whorehouses," posted by "Deconstructor," on "Recovery from Mormonism" discussion board, June 2006; see also, "The False [LDS] Joseph Smith and the Real [Historical Reality] Joseph Smith," by "Nightingale," on "Recovery from Mormonism" discussion board, 13 August 2010, at: http://www.exmormon.org/mormon/mormon628.htm
More on the seedy underside of Smith's Nauvoo polygamous paradise, where abortions were repotedly performed on Mormon women:
"Joseph Smith Encouraging Abortions for His Plural Wives
"I am sure the TBM's who read this post are going to accuse me of spreading anti-Mormon rumors/lies about the beloved Prophet. This will be especially the case because most if not all of my sources are statements from those disaffected with Joseph or the Church. I acknowledge the possibility that the allegations are untrue. I don't believe either of us can declare definitively whether these allegations are false or true, but no doubt some TBM's will speak as though they KNOW that these allegations are false, which of course they can't know that.
"So, why post these quotes? Because people deserve the opportunity to investigate for themselves and make up their own minds about it. The more I research things, the more I trust the word of the disaffected Mormons more than the Church Leadership. . . .
"'May 21, 1886, I had a fresh interview with Mrs. Sarah M. Pratt, who had the kindness to give me the following testimony additional to the information given by her in our interviews in the spring of 1885. "I want you to have all my statements correct in your book," said the noble lady, "and put my name to them; I want the truth, the full truth, to be known, and bear the responsibility of it. . . .
"'Joseph Smith, the son of the prophet, and president of the re-organized Mormon church, paid me a visit, and I had a long talk with him. I saw that he was not inclined to believe the truth about his father, so I said to him: "You pretend to have revelations from the Lord. Why don't you ask the Lord to tell you what kind of a man your father really was?" He answered: "If my father had so many connections with women, where is the progeny?" I said to him: "Your father had mostly intercourse with married women, and as to single ones, Dr. Bennett was always on hand, when anything happened . . ."
"'Bennett wanted me to return to him a book I had borrowed from him. It was a so-called doctor-book. I had a rapidly growing little family and wanted to inform myself about certain matters in regard to babies, etc.,--this explains my borrowing that book. While giving Bennett his book, I observed that he held something in the left sleeve of his coat. Bennett smiled and said: 'Oh, a little job for Joseph; one of his women is in trouble.' Saying this. he took the thing out of his left sleeve. It was a pretty long instrument of a kind I had never seen before. It seemed to be of steel and was crooked at one end. I heard afterwards that the operation had been performed; that the woman was very sick, and that Joseph was very much afraid that she might die, but she recovered.
('Mormon Portraits I,' von Wymetal, Wilhelm, SLC: Tribune Printing & Pub., 1886, p. 59-62).
"'Affidavit of Hyrum Smith
"'On the 17th day of May, 1842, having been made acquainted with some of the conduct of John C. Bennett, which was given in testimony under oath before Alderman G. W. Harris, by several females, who testified that John C. Bennett endeavored to seduce them and accomplished his designs by saying it was right; that it was one of the mysteries of God, which was to be revealed when the people was strong enough in the faith to bear such mysteries--that it was perfectly right to have illicit intercourse with females, providing no one knew it but themselves, vehemently trying them from day to day, to yield to his passions, bringing witnesses of his own clan to testify that [there] was such revelations and such commandments, and that it was of God; also stating that he would be responsible for their sins, if their was any; and that he would give them medicine to produce abortions, providing they should become pregnant. One of these witnesses, a married woman that he attended upon in his professional capacity, whilst she was sick, stated that he made proposals to her of a similar nature; he told her that he wished her husband was dead, and that if he was dead he would marry her and clear out out with her; he also begged her permission to give him medicine to that effect; he did try to give him medicine, but he would not take it--on interrogating her what she thought of such teaching, she replied, she was sick at the time, and had to be lifted in and out of her bed like a child.'
('The Wasp--EXTRA,' Nauvoo, Illinois, 27 July 1842)
"'Did you ever hear of abortion being practiced in Nauvoo?"
"'Yes. There was some talk about Joseph getting no issue from all the women he had intercourse with. Dr. Foster spoke to me about the fact. But I don't remember what was told about abortion. If I heard things of the kind, I didn't believe in them at that time. Joseph was very free in his talk about his women. He told me one day of a certain girl and remarked, that she had given him more pleasure than any girl he had ever enjoyed. I told him it was horrible to talk like this."
(interview with William Law. 30 Marcn 1887, puiblished in 'The Daily Tribune,' Salt Lake City, Utah, 31 July 1887)
("Allegations About Joseph Smith Encouraging Abortions for His Plural Wives," 20 July 2008, at: http://entreated.blogspot.com/2008/07/allegations-abt-joseph-smith.html
--Contraception: Another Possible Way for Smith to Limit the Spread of His Multi-Wifing DNA
RfM poster "sistersalamander" offers an additional possibility to explain a certain lack of trackabilityy when it comes to Smith's seed trail:
" . . . [A]nother reason why Smith's women may not have had children: contraceptive methods. [A]lthough not as reliable as today's, [they] did exist. Women knew about them and Dr. Bennett probably did, too (as evidenced by Sarah Pratt borrowing his book to learn how to limit her rapidly-growing family).
"Herbal contraceptives have been used since ancient times; Pliny and Discorides wrote about them, including formulas and effective doses. Other treatises up through Renaissance times detailed the use of rue; pennyroyal; tansy; celery seed; fig juice; wild yam, wild carrot seed (Queen Anne's Lace) and other commonly-available herbs; flowers; and plants to prevent conception and/or 'bring on the courses' of women who suffered from menstrual irregularities such as late periods.
"(Interestingly, science is discovering that many of these plants affect female hormone production, causing the body to not ovulate or to interrupt a very early pregnancy.Despite our modern insistence that only pharmaceutical contraceptives are effective, population studies and other evidence points to the conclusion that it simply isn't so).
"For over 100 years in Renaissance England (starting in 1653), Nicholas Culpeper's 'Complete Herbal' sold more copies than any other book except the Bible. It included herbal formulas for birth control as well (discreetly phrased, of course). This book and others like it were later available in the US as well.
"Condom production in the U.S. began in 1840, but sponges and other cervical-blocking devices may have been available even earlier. Certainly, women who knew about them and had access to the raw materials could make them whether they were commercially sold or not.
"In addition, midwives and 'wise women' (often labeled as witches) knew about plant-based contraceptive methods and passed them on privately to other women. Can we really believe that no one in Nauvoo knew about these common herbal remedies?
"And, as Steve Benson pointed out above, abortionists were active in Nauvoo and nearby locations.
"For a fascinating read on the subject, try 'Eve's Herbs: A History of Contraception and Abortion in the West,' by John C. Riddle."
("Re: Y, Oh, Y?: Following the DNA--Did Joseph Smith Produce Children in Polygamous Relationships with Other Women (Meaning Not with Emma?) Say It Ain't So, Joe! (MORE)," by "sistersalamander." on "Recovery from Mormonism" discussion board, 21 February 2013, at: http://exmormon.org/phorum/read.php?2,801384,802322#msg-802322
Like so much involving the dark side of Mormonism, hiding the historical evidence is of paramount importance to maintaining the mirage.
And what better place to focus than on covering up Joseph Smith's patneral DNA?
Edited 29 time(s). Last edit at 02/21/2013 11:17PM by steve benson.